Selasa, 02 Juli 2013

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TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION USING KWL STRATEGY
By
Shella

INTRODUCTION
Teaching is familiar with us, we always look and do that everyday. We do teaching and learning process everyday when we at the school. What the teacher do in front of the class is teaching reading comprehension is essentially the ability to understand what has been read. After we read a text, we think what have we get from the text. What the meaning of the text that we have read, and also we try to understand the purpose of the text to the readers. If reading came naturally, teaching reading would be a much easier job. Students would learn to read as readily as they learn to speak. Teachers would only need to give students the chance to practice their skills. But the students don't learn to read just from being exposed to books. Reading must be taught. For many students, reading must be taught explicitly and systematically, one small step at a time.
That's why good teachers are so important. One of the most reading comprehension programs teach students explicit reading strategies using teacher direct instruction with additional student practice. Comprehension through discussion involves lessons that are "instructional conversations" that create higher-level thinking opportunities for students. The purpose of the discussions are to promote critical and aesthetic thinking about text and encourage full classroom involvement. The teacher who wants to teach reading should have special strategy to interest the student and to reach the goals. The teacher should be creative handling the class in order not to make the students bored, because reading is a boring activity. There are many strategies in teaching reading comprehension to the students. For long time, methods for teaching reading forEnglish Department students have raisedcontroversy. The controversy is well debated asimportant as the statement that readingis important for the students who are in the Junior High School. Early reading abilityeffects school success across the curriculum, and students.
In a Fact we can know that K-W-L strategy is a good strategy in teaching reading to the students. Students’ prior knowledge is activated by asking them what they already know; then students set goals focusing on what they want to learn; and after reading, students discuss what they have studied. Of course they get many things after they reading something like, many new vocabularies, knowledge and information. After that we will interesting to learn others kind of text that we have not read yet in order to get many different knowledges.
The aim of this study is to know how many students do not develop effective learning and problem solving strategies on their own but can acquire them throughmodelling and explicit instruction from their teachers. Poorreaders, for example, can be taught reading comprehensionstrategies such as keeping the purpose of an assignment inmind when reading; activating relevant background knowledge;identifying major points in attending to the outline andflow of content; monitoring understanding by generating andtrying to answer questions about the content; or drawing andtesting inferences by making interpretations, predictions andconclusions. Instruction should include not only demonstrationsof and opportunities to apply the skill itself but alsoexplanations of the purpose of the skill (what it does for thelearner) and the occasions on which it would be used.
The scope of this study is focusing Strategy teaching is likely to be most effective when itincludes cognitive modelling: the teacher thinks out loud whilemodelling use of the strategy. Cognitive modelling makes overtthe otherwise covert thought processes that guide use of thestrategy in a variety of contexts. It provides learners with firstpersonlanguage (‘self talk’) that they can adapt directly whenusing the strategy themselves. This eliminates the need fortranslation that is created when instruction is presented in theimpersonal third-person language of explanation or even thesecond-person language of coaching. The teachers can model and instruct their students in general study skills and learning strategies such as rehearsal (repeating material to remember it more effectively), elaboration(putting material into one’s own words and relating it toprior knowledge), organization (outlining material to highlightits structure and remember it), comprehension monitoring (keeping track of the strategies used to construct understandingsand the degree of success achieved with them, and adjustingstrategies accordingly), and affect monitoring (maintainingconcentration and task focus, and minimizing performanceanxiety and fear of failure).

The method that used in this study is single method or single combination methods that can successfully teach all students to read,  it is still essential for teaching reading experts to conductstudies and invent better methods to revise the old ones.  As a result, methods havebeen found and implemented in reading subject  in classroom. At least more than ten methodshave been developed and implemented and some of them have become trends, yet only five ofthem to be highlighted in this article, those are; (1) Choral Reading (CR) Method,(2) Paired Reading (PR) method, (3) PORPE method,(4) KWL method and (5) SQ4R method.Here we do not talk all of those method, we just talk about the KWL method.  

THEORITICAL REVIEW
Definition of Reading Comprehension

According to Penn State, “teaching excellence is an academic process by which students are motivated to learn in ways that make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel”
Teaching is a process of giving lesson from the teacher to the students. It can be in or out of the room, oral or writen is depends on the material that the teacher teach. Another definition of teaching is from Brown (2000:7), “Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the condition for learning. Your understanding of how the learners will determine your philosophy of education, in your teaching style, your methods and classroom techniques.”
 “Reading comprehension is a dynamic interactive process between the reader and the reading material”.( Omar Salim Muhammad Al-Khateeb, European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 12, Number 3 (2010):472).
The international reading association has developed position statements on severalimportant issues related to beginning reading instruction. These statements are aimed toclarify association’s stance on method for teaching beginning reading. A reading method isa set of teaching and learning materials and/or activities often givena label, such asphonic method, literature based method, or language experiencemethod (international readingassociation, 1999).
The statements say that there is no single method or single combination methods that cansuccessfully teach all students to read. Therefore a teacher/a lecturermust have a strongknowledge of multiple methods for teaching reading and a strong knowledge of the studentsin their care so they can create the appropriate balance of methods needed for the students they teach. (international reading association, 1999).
In recent times, an instructional method known as K-W-L, developed by Ogle (1986) hasbeen implemented in classrooms. Students’ prior knowledge is activated byasking themwhat they already know; then students set goals focusing on what they want to learn;and after reading, students discuss what they have studied. Students apply higher-orderthinking strategies which assist them to build meaning from what they read and help themexamine their progress toward their goals. A worksheet is given to every student thatincludes columns for each of these activities.
KWL (Ogle, 1986) is an instructional reading strategy that is used to guide students through a text. Students begin by brainstorming everything they Know about a topic. This information is recorded in the K column of a KWL chart. Students then generate a list of questions about what they Want to Know about the topic. These questions are listed in the W column of the chart. During or after reading, students answer the questions that are in the W column. This new information that they have learned is recorded in the L column of the KWL chart.  
According to Hato Rey(1979:11), “K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. The letters K, W, L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW, determining what they WANT to learn, and identifying what they LEARN as they read”.

Types of Reading
such as reading as a discrimination act or a decoding process that is one of words. It means that thinking begin when reading stops. Reading is a silent and individual activity, reading is a complex silent and individual activitor a decoding process that the text would be read, not heard. It means that we produce voices or spoken. We look at the text then we produce voices from the text that we have looked.
There are two kinds of reading, first is oral reading and the second is silent reading. In oral reading, comprehension is not necessarily the focus; a text read aloud can be done without understanding it. The focus of oral reading is on the eye movement of the reader. Different with silent reading, comprehension is the primary focus. Understanding that result from silent reading is known as reading comprehension.
Importance of Reading
In classroom testing some important features of reading activities that are usually done, K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the activenature of reading in group settings.

Using K-W-L Strategy

Definition
How to Use K-W-L Strategy: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classesor smaller groups. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in whichstudents are reading expository material.
1.    Group instruction. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basiccomponents.
a.       First, the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group alreadyknow about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce thelesson. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector.When disagreements and questions emerge, the teacher notes them and suggeststhat students may want to include them on the center column as questions theywant to have answered.
b.      Second, after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept,they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. Theteacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or morepieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories.
c.       Third, after the students are somewhat familiar with this process, they should beasked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have includedin an article on the topic. The categories of information identified will be usefulin processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature.
2.    Individual reflection. After the group introduction to the topic, students should beasked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept.They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. Atthis time, the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerge during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of informationthey expect to find.
3.    Reading. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both onwhat they know and what they want to find out from reading. Depending on thelength and difficulty of the text and the class composition, the text can either be readas a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. As they read, studentsshould jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge.
4.    Assessment of learning. The final step in the process is to engage the students ina discussion of what they have learned from reading. Their questions should bereviewed to determine how they were resolved. If some have not been answeredsatisfactorily, students should be encouraged to continue their search for information.











REFERENCES

Hato Rey.Learning Strategies Resource GuideUniversity of South Florida:Region XIV Comprehensive Center.1979.

Omar Salim Muhammad Al-Khateeb, European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 12, Number 3 (2010):472

“Reading comprehension is a dynamic interactive process between the reader and the reading material”.( Omar Salim Muhammad Al-Khateeb, European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 12, Number 3 (2010):472).
According to Hato Rey(1979:11), “K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. The letters K, W, L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW, determining what they WANT to learn, and identifying what they LEARN as they read”.
http://www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic-organizers/skill-builder/48615.html?page=2



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